who wrote bhagavad gita
Therein, in the third section, the Gita forms chapters 23–40, that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40.  The Bhagavad Gita is a Brahmanical text which uses the shramanic and Yogic terminology to spread the Brahmanic idea of living according to one's duty or dharma, in contrast to the ascetic ideal of liberation by avoiding all karma.  Contexually, it also means the essence of "duty, law, class, social norms, ritual and cosmos itself" in the text, in the sense "the way things should be in all these different dimensions", states Fowler. A few people laughed, a few people cried. Yes, you heard me right, writing Bhagavad Gita on rice grains. This knowledge leads to the universal, transcendent Godhead, the divine essence in all beings, to Brahman – the Krishna himself. , Bhagavad Gita integrates various schools of thought, notably Vedanta, Samkhya and Yoga, and other theistic ideas. , Ramanuja was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and an exponent of the Sri Vaishnavism (Vishnu) tradition in 11th and early 12th century. Action leads to knowledge, while selfless action leads to spiritual awareness, state the last verses of this chapter. Definition. It is more broadly, the "duty" and a "metaphysically congealed act" for Arjuna.  According to Zaehner, the term dharma means "duty" in Gita's context, in verse 2.7 refers to the "right [and wrong]", and in 14.27 to "eternal law of righteousness". " To him, svadeshi was "sva-dharma applied to one's immediate environment. , Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with widely differing views on the essentials. ":518, According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms". The Bhagavad Gita is the title of Winthrop Sargeant's translation, first published in 1979, of the Bhagavad Gītā (Sanskrit: भगवद्गीता, "Song of God"), an important Hindu scripture. It is sometimes referred to simply as the Gita or may be prefixed by the term Srimad as a sign of respect. , Gandhi's view differed from Aurobindo's view. , Swami Nikhilananda, takes Arjuna as an allegory of Ātman, Krishna as an allegory of Brahman, Arjuna's chariot as the body, and Dhritarashtra as the ignorance filled mind. For Dnyaneshwar, people err when they see themselves distinct from each other and Krishna, and these distinctions vanish as soon as they accept, understand and enter with love unto Krishna. ", Mahatma Gandhi credited his commitment for ahimsa to the Gita.  According to Paul Hacker, the term dharma has additional meanings in the context of Arjuna. The Lord, states Chatterjee, created millions and millions of people, and he did not ordain dharma only for Indians [Hindus] and "make all the others dharma-less", for "are not the non-Hindus also his children"? , Some translators title the fourteenth chapter as Gunatraya–Vibhaga yoga, Religion by Separation from the Qualities, The Forces of Evolution, or The Yoga of the Division of Three Gunas. Our very own Hyderabad ammayi named ‘Ramagiri Swarika’ has achieved this task of inscribing Bhagavad Gita on grains of rice. Even a monk should strive for the "inner renunciation", rather than external pretensions.  Of all known extant historic manuscripts, the largest version contains 715 verses. , The Gita praises the path, calling the jnana yogin to be exceedingly dear to Krishna, but adds that the path is steep and difficult. In 1849, the Weleyan Mission Press, Bangalore published The Bhagavat-Geeta, Or, Dialogues of Krishna and Arjoon in Eighteen Lectures, with Sanskrit, Canarese and English in parallel columns, edited by Rev. The chapter summarizes the Hindu idea of rebirth, samsara, eternal soul in each person (Self), universal soul present in everyone, various types of yoga, divinity within, the nature of Self-knowledge and other concepts. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. " The Gita likely spawned a "powerful devotionalism" movement, states Fowler, because the text and this path was simpler, available to everyone.  While the shloka is the principal meter in the Gita, it does deploy other elements of Sanskrit prosody. In 1966, Mahārishi Mahesh Yogi published a partial translation. Mother Geeta in the similar shloka form. According to Jeaneane Fowler, the Gita builds on the Upanishadic Brahman theme, conceptualized to be that which is everywhere, unaffected, constant Absolute, indescribable and nirguna (abstract, without features).  Theologian Catherine Cornille writes, "The text [of the Gita] offers a survey of the different possible disciplines for attaining liberation through knowledge (Jnana), action (karma), and loving devotion to God (bhakti), focusing on the latter as both the easiest and the highest path to salvation. Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow. , Unlike any other religious scripture, the Bhagavad Gita broadcasts its message in the centre of the battlefield. Krishna counsels Arjuna to "fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) duty to uphold the Dharma" through "selfless action". Perform every action with you heart fixed on the Supreme Lord. Each of these quarters is further arranged into "two metrical feet of four syllables each", state Flood and Martin. In light of the Ahimsa (non-violence) teachings in Hindu scriptures, the Gita has been criticized as violating the Ahimsa value, or alternatively, as supporting political violence. It is a call of action to meet the obligations and duties of life; yet keeping in view the spiritual nature and grander purpose of the universe. The warrior Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has doubts about.  According to Chatterjee, the Hindus already understand the meaning of that term. Home » who first wrote the bhagavad gita. It teaches both the abstract and the personalized Brahman (God), the latter in the form of Krishna.  Further, states Hirst, the Gita should be seen as a "unitary text" in its entirety rather than a particular verse analyzed separately or out of context.  According to Galvin Flood, the teachings in Gita differ from other Indian religions that encouraged extreme austerity and self-torture of various forms (karsayanta). I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad Gita; Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty and, to impress him, takes on his multi-armed form and says, 'Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.'  The Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi; the latter referred to it as his "spiritual dictionary".. Every man or woman is bound by activity. Filled with introspection and questions about the meaning and purpose of life, he asks Krishna about the nature of life, soul, death, afterlife and whether there is a deeper meaning and reality. Tilak and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi as notable commentators see: For notability of the commentaries by B.G.  Therefore, 'Field of action' implies the field of righteousness, where truth will eventually triumph, states Fowler. In the last eight verses of this chapter, Krishna states that he loves those who have compassion for all living beings, are content with whatever comes their way, who live a detached life that is impartial and selfless, unaffected by fleeting pleasure or pain, neither craving for praise nor depressed by criticism. In 1808, passages from the Gita were part of the first direct translation of Sanskrit into German, appearing in a book through which Friedrich Schlegel became known as the founder of Indian philology in Germany. Savarkar "often turned to Hindu scripture such as the Bhagavad Gita, arguing that the text justified violence against those who would harm Mother India. He interprets its teachings in the Shaiva Advaita (monism) tradition quite similar to Adi Shankara, but with the difference that he considers both soul and matter to be metaphysically real and eternal. How old is the Gita? [note 5], Theories on the date of the composition of the Gita vary considerably.  This view is shared by the Indologist Arthur Basham, who states that there were three or more authors or compilers of Bhagavad Gita. According to Fowler, the bhakti in the Gita does not imply renunciation of "action", but the bhakti effort is assisted with "right knowledge" and dedication to one's dharma.  The word Vyasa literally means "arranger, compiler", and is a surname in India. Scholars accept dates from the fifth century to the second century BCE as the probable range, the latter likely.  The teachings of the Gita on ahimsa are ambiguous, states Arvind Sharma, and this is best exemplified by the fact that Nathuram Godse stated the Gita as his inspiration to do his dharma after he assassinated Mahatma Gandhi. , Some translators title the fourth chapter as Jñāna–Karma-Sanyasa yoga, The Religion of Knowledge, Wisdom in Action, or The Yoga of Renunciation of Action through Knowledge.  To Shankara, the teaching of the Gita is to shift an individual's focus from the outer, impermanent, fleeting objects of desire and senses to the inner, permanent, eternal atman-Brahman-Vasudeva that is identical, in everything and in every being. Before Mahatma Gandhi came on the scene, he was at the forefront of the freedom struggle of India.  According to the Indologist Arvind Sharma, the Gita is generally accepted to be a 2nd-century-BCE text.  Their attempt was to present their "universalist religion".  Variant manuscripts of the Gita have been found on the Indian subcontinent Unlike the enormous variations in the remaining sections of the surviving Mahabharata manuscripts, the Gita manuscripts show only minor variations and the meaning is the same.  This equation is, however, interpreted in a number of ways by different sub-schools of Vedanta.  Gambhirananda's view is supported by a few versions of chapter 6.43 of the Mahabharata. David Maas, NBA halftime showman, dies of COVID-19 Gandhi called the Gita "The Gospel of Selfless Action". The Bhagavad Gita (“Song of God” or “Song of the Lord”) is among the most important religious texts of Hinduism and easily the best known. , Vivekananda's works contained numerous references to the Gita, such as his lectures on the four yogas – Bhakti, Jnana, Karma, and Raja. The chapter states that evil is the consequence of ignorance and the attachment to the impermanent, delusive Maya. [web 1][note 2], The Bhagavad Gita is the best known and most famous of Hindu texts, with a unique pan-Hindu influence.  He wrote a commentary on the Gita as Gitartha-Samgraha, which has survived into the modern era. What is Shrimad Bhagavad Gita & Who Wrote Bhagavad Gita? Reading this book as an open-minded person, not clinging to the faith of any particular religion was definitely one reason I could enjoy the thoughts and perspective presented in this book. , The Gita rejects ascetic life, renunciation as well as Brahminical Vedic ritualism where outwardly actions or non-action are considered a means of personal rewards in this life, after-life or a means of liberation. Srimad Bhagavad Gita Quotes in Hindi by Lord Krishna. For seeing the Lord as the same everywhere present, he does not destroy the Self by the Self, and thus he goes to the highest goal. , Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was mostly unknown in the Indian history till early 8th century when Adi Shankara (Shankaracharya) made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it. Soon the work was translated into other European languages such as French (1787), German, and Russian. , According to Swami Vivekananda, sva-dharma in the Gita does not mean "caste duty", rather it means the duty that comes with one's life situation (mother, father, husband, wife) or profession (soldier, judge, teacher, doctor).  Like some of the Upanishads, the Gita does not limit itself to the nirguna Brahman.  This is an idea found in the Rigveda and many later Hindu texts, where it is a symbolism for atman (soul) and Brahman (Absolute Reality) eternally pervading all beings and all existence. In the Gita, the soul of each human being is considered to be identical to every other human being and all beings, but it "does not support an identity with the Brahman", according to Fowler. , The world's largest Bhagavad Gita is in the ISKCON Temple Delhi, which claims to be the world's largest sacred book of any religion.  While Hinduism is known for its diversity and its synthesis therefrom, the Bhagavad Gita has a unique pan-Hindu influence.  The Gita message emphasizes that the personal moral confusion and struggle must be addressed, the warrior needs to rise beyond "personal and social values" and understand what is at stake and "why he must fight", states Miller.  It accomplishes this synthesis by projecting the nirguna Brahman as higher than saguna or personalized Brahman, where the nirguna Brahman "exists when everything else does not", states Fowler. [web 1][note 1] The Krishna–Arjuna dialogues cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces. The Mahabharata – the world's longest poem – is itself a text that was likely written and compiled over several hundred years, one dated between "400 BCE or little earlier, and 2nd century CE, though some claim a few parts can be put as late as 400 CE", states Fowler. A. Aurobindo writes, "... That is a view which the general character and the actual language of the epic does not justify and, if pressed, would turn the straightforward philosophical language of the. :514 According to Larson, there is "a massive translational tradition in English, pioneered by the British, solidly grounded philologically by the French and Germans, provided with its indigenous roots by a rich heritage of modern Indian comment and reflection, extended into various disciplinary areas by Americans, and having generated in our time a broadly based cross-cultural awareness of the importance of the Bhagavad Gita both as an expression of a specifically Indian spirituality and as one of the great religious "classics" of all time. An abridged version with 42 verses and commentary was published by. The Bhagavad Gita ('the song of the Spirit' ). Who wrote the Bhagavad Gita? Arjuna requests Krishna to move the chariot between the two armies so he can see those "eager for this war". He replied, “My ambition was to write a book on Differential Calculus.  According to Jeaneane Fowler, the Gita builds on the Upanishadic Brahman theme, conceptualized to be that which is everywhere, unaffected, constant Absolute, indescribable and nirguna (abstract, without features). But an ordinary man with firm faith in the eternal injunctions of the Lord, even though unable to execute such orders, becomes liberated from the bondage of the law of  According to Jonardon Ganeri, the premise of "disinterested action" is one of the important ethical concepts in the Gita. [note 3], Scholars consider Vyasa to be a mythical or symbolic author, in part because Vyasa is also the traditional compiler of the Vedas and the Puranas, texts dated to be from different millennia.  Aurobindo saw Bhagavad Gita as a "scripture of the future religion" and suggested that Hinduism had acquired a much wider relevance through the Gita. Their happiness comes from within, and the external world does not bother them. The Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, mentions the absolute Purusha who dwells in every human being.  His commentary on the Gita is called Gita Bhāshya. He was asked what position he would choose if India became independent—Prime Minister or Foreign Minister?  At dramatic moments, it uses the tristubh meter found in the Vedas, where each line of the couplet has two quarter verses with exactly eleven syllables. This is not to be confused with the Shrimad Bhagavatam, which is a Purana dealing with the life of the Hindu God Krishna and various avatars of Vishnu. Going even more further than this we know that one kalpa is calculated in Vedic scriptures as being 4 billion 300 million years. The History of the United States' Golden Presidential Dollars, How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed Schools and Education in Lasting Ways. An authentic manuscript of the Gita with 745 verses has not been found.  The justification of political violence when peaceful protests and all else fails, states Varma, has been a "fairly common feature of modern Indian political thought" along with the "mighty antithesis of Gandhian thought on non-violence". And if … Krishna states that his own highest nature is the imperishable Brahman, and that he lives in every creature as the adhyatman. The different paths, says Krishna, aim for—and if properly pursued, lead to—Self-knowledge. "[note 25], Aurobindo modernises the concept of dharma and svabhava by internalising it, away from the social order and its duties towards one's personal capacities, which leads to a radical individualism, "finding the fulfilment of the purpose of existence in the individual alone.  The Bhagavad Gita is often preserved and studied on its own, as an independent text with its chapters renumbered from 1 to 18.  In the Bhagavad Gita, it is also referred to as buddhi yoga and its goal is self-realization. , Liberation or moksha in Vedanta philosophy is not something that can be acquired. At the start of the Dharma Yuddha (righteous war) between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is filled with moral dilemma and despair about the violence and death the war will cause in the battle against his own kin. This chapter is an overview for the remaining sixteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita.  The text covers Gyān, Bhakti, Karma, and Rāj Yoga (spoken of in the 6th chapter) incorporating ideas from the Samkhya-Yoga philosophy.  Another Hindu legend states that Vyasa narrated it while the elephant-headed deity Ganesha broke one of his tusks and wrote down the Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita. , "The Field of Dharma" is also called the "Field of action" by Sri Aurobindo, a freedom fighter and philosopher. Rosen, Steven; Krishna's Song: A New Look at the Bhagavad Gita, p. 22. Bhagavad Gita has been described as the cream of all Vedic knowledge. According to Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, a Gita scholar, it is possible that a number of different individuals with the same name compiled different texts. The debate about the relationship between the, According to Basham, passionately theistic verses are found, for example, in chapters 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14.1–6 with 14.29, 15, 18.54–78; while more philosophical verses with one or two verses where Krishna identifies himself as the highest god are found, for example, in chapters 2.38–72, 3, 5, 6, 8, 13 and 14.7–25, 16, 17 and 18.1–53. The book is significant in that unlike other commentaries of the Bhagavad Gita, which focus on karma yoga, jnana yoga, and bhakti yoga in relation to the Gita, Yogananda's work stresses the training of one's mind, or raja yoga. It is not those who lack energy , The first English translation of the Bhagavad Gita was published by Charles Wilkins in 1785. Oppenheimer later recalled that, while witnessing the explosion of the Trinity nuclear test, he thought of verses from the Bhagavad Gita (XI,12): दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥११- १२॥ Krishna is all and One.  In the final and long chapter, the Gita offers a final summary of its teachings in the previous chapters.  Eknath Easwaran writes that the Gita's subject is "the war within, the struggle for self-mastery that every human being must wage if he or she is to emerge from life victorious". " This attribution to Adi Shankara is unlikely in part because Shankara himself refers to the earlier commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, and because other Hindu texts and traditions that compete with the ideas of Shankara refer to much older literature referencing the Bhagavad Gita, though much of this ancient secondary literature has not survived into the modern era. When I lay my hands upon the book titled "Who Wrote the Bhagavad Gita? The Bhagavad Gita and the Atomic Bomb.  Each shloka consists of a couplet, thus the entire text consists of 1,400 lines. This would date the text as transmitted by the oral tradition to the later centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE, and the first written version probably to the 2nd or 3rd century CE.  This theme has led scholars to call the Gita as panentheistic, theistic and monistic. —Bhagavad Gita 6.1Eknath Easwaran[note 14], Some translators title the sixth chapter as Dhyana yoga, Religion by Self-Restraint, The Practice of Meditation, or The Yoga of Meditation. The Gita, while including impersonal Nirguna Brahman as the goal, mainly revolves around the relationship between the Self and a personal God or Saguna Brahman. The Gita accepts atman as the pure, unchanging, ultimate real essence, experiencer of one's being. John C. Plott et al.  Adi Shankara, in his 8th-century commentary, explicitly states that the Gita has 700 verses, which was likely a deliberate declaration to prevent further insertions and changes to the Gita. " He deduced from the Gita the doctrine that "the functions of a man ought to be determined by his natural turn, gift, and capacities", that the individual should "develop freely" and thereby would be best able to serve society.  The ideas and concepts in the second chapter reflect the framework of the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy. You must understand both! Vallabha the proponent of "Suddhadvaita" or pure non-dualism, wrote a commentary on the Gita, the "Sattvadipika". [web 6], The 1993 Sanskrit film, Bhagavad Gita, directed by G. V. Iyer won the 1993 National Film Award for Best Film.  In this chapter, Krishna glorifies the path of love and devotion to God. The Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition. ", The Bhagavad Gita is part of the Prasthanatrayi, which also includes the Upanishads and Brahma sutras.  According to Edgerton, the author(s) of the Gita rely on their concept of personalized God (Krishna) to ultimately arrive at an ultimate monism, where the devotee ultimately realizes that Krishna is the essential part, the Real, the fundamental element in him, everyone and everything. Two massive armies representing different loyalties and ideologies face a catastrophic war. , The Gita adopts the Upanishadic concept of Absolute Reality (Brahman), a shift from the earlier ritual-driven Vedic religion to one abstracting and internalizing spiritual experiences. For example, state Galvin Flood and Charles Martin, these interpretations have been used to support "pacifism to aggressive nationalism" in politics, from "monism to theism" in philosophy.  These include writing systems that are currently in use, as well as early scripts such as the Sharada script now dormant.  According to Jimmy Klausen, Ambedkar in his essay Krishna and his Gita stated that the Gita was a "tool" of Brahmanical Hinduism and for its latter-day saints such as Mahatma Gandhi and Lokmanya Tilak. In addition to being the author, he is also a major character in the Mahabharata, although not the Gita.  According to Flood and Martin, the Gita though set in the war context in a major epic, the narrative is structured for the abstract to all situations; it wrestles with questions about "who we are, how we should live our lives, and how should we act in the world". , Jnana yoga is the path of knowledge, wisdom, and direct realization of the Brahman. Because of differences in recensions, the verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6.25–42 or as chapters 6.23–40.  It is thus one of the key texts for the Vedanta, a school that provides one of the theoretical foundations for Hinduism, and one that has had an enormous influence over time, becoming the central ideology of the Hindu renaissance in the 19th century, according to Gavin Flood – a scholar of Hinduism. What had previously been known of Indian literature in Germany had been translated from the English. John Garrett, and the efforts being supported by Sir. Bhagavad Gita . The Pandava prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna to drive to the center of the battlefield so that he can get a good look at both the armies and all those "so eager for war". Fox paid 7-figure settlement over bogus conspiracy story. Krishna explains the difference between purusha and prakriti, by mapping human experiences to three Guṇas (tendencies, qualities). , A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, 11th President of India, despite being a Muslim, used to read Bhagavad Gita and recite mantras.. This is how the flower of devotion evolves into the fruit of knowledge. You have no right to the fruits of work. The movie, however, uses the plot but glosses over the teachings unlike the novel.  Krishna answers. NV Isaeva (1992), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press. Like his Vedanta peers, Ramanuja wrote a bhashya (commentary) on the Gita. Madhva's commentary has attracted secondary works by pontiffs of the Dvaita Vedanta monasteries such as Padmanabha Tirtha, Jayatirtha, and Raghavendra Tirtha.  According to Flood and Martin, chapter 3 and onwards develops "a theological response to Arjuna's dilemma". The actual dates of composition of the Gita remain unresolved.  The competing tradition may be the materialists (Charvaka), states Fowler. B. van Buitenen too states that the Gita was likely composed about 200 BCE. Renounce attachment to the fruits. Desire for the fruits of work must never be your motive in working. , According to Malinar, "Arjuna's crisis and some of the arguments put forward to call him to action are connected to the debates on war and peace in the Udyoga Parva.  , Some translators title the chapter as Karma yoga, Virtue in Work, Selfless Service, or The Yoga of Action. In Minor's view, the Harvard scholar Franklin Edgerton's English translation and Richard Garbe's German translation are closer to the text than many others. [note 12], Some translators have variously titled the first chapter as Arjuna vishada yoga, Prathama Adhyaya, The Distress of Arjuna, The War Within, or Arjuna's Sorrow.  These translations vary, and are in part an interpretative reconstruction of the original Sanskrit text that differ in their "friendliness to the reader", and in the amount of "violence to the original Gita text" that the translation does. These versions state the Gita is a text where "Kesava [Krishna] spoke 620 slokas, Arjuna 57, Samjaya 67, and Dhritarashtra 1", states the Religious Studies and Gita exegesis scholar Robert Minor. Never give way to laziness, either.  The compiled dialogue goes far beyond the "a rationale for war"; it touches on many human ethical dilemmas, philosophical issues and life's choices. , In the Gita, Krishna persuades Arjuna to wage war where the enemy includes some of his own relatives and friends. He states that truthfulness, self-restraint, sincerity, love for others, desire to serve others, being detached, avoiding anger, avoiding harm to all living creatures, fairness, compassion and patience are marks of the divine nature. He was the one who compiled the Mahabharata which includes Gita.
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