portuguese colonies in america

Landing in the New World and reaching Asia, the expedition connected four continents for the first time in history. After succeeding in finding a maritime route to the East, Portugal left Spain to concentrate on the Americas, opened up by Christopher Columbus's (1451–1506) voyages in 1492. Afterwards, tensions resumed over territory around the Río de la Plata. The Corte-Real explorations of North America in the official Library and Archives Canada website. The Portuguese and Spanish became great colonizing nations at the end of the Middle Ages. Kieman, Mathias C. The Indian Policy of Portugal in the Amazon Region, 1614–1693. From 1534 to 1536, 15 Captaincy colonies were created in Portuguese America. [1] To that end, in 1499 and 1500, the Portuguese mariner João Fernandes Lavrador visited the northeast Atlantic coast and Greenland, which accounts for the appearance of "Labrador" on topographical maps of the period. Vespucci suggested that the newly discovered lands (especially what is today South America/Brazil) were not the Indies but a "New World",[10] the Mundus novus, Latin title of a contemporary document based on Vespucci letters to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, which had become widely popular in Europe. The king dispatched Martín Alfonso de Sousa (d. 1564) with a fleet and instructions to rid Brazil of any French presence and to establish settlements (the French argued that Portuguese claims to territory were invalid because there were no permanent settlements in the areas claimed by Lisbon). To such an extent, that, for instance, for the Portuguese town of Póvoa de Varzim, most of its seafarers dying abroad, most of the deaths occurred in the Route of the Antilles, in the West Indies. He subsequently established a new imperial government with himself as Emperor Pedro I. see also African Slavery in the Americas; Brazilian Independence; Henry the Navigator, Prince; Mining, the Americas; Sugar Cultivation and Trade. To escape the advancing French forces, the regent, Dom João (1769–1826), the son of the mentally unbalanced Queen Maria I (1734–1816), and his court fled to Brazil (the escape was aided by the British, who ultimately moved some fifteen thousand Portuguese to Brazil and lent the government $3 million to keep it solvent). Rev. On the other hand, some historians have suggested that the Portuguese may have encountered the South American bulge earlier while sailing the "volta do mar" (in the Southwest Atlantic), hence the insistence of King John II in moving the line west of the line agreed upon in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. Rather than actual gold an…, The Thirteen Colonies were British colonies in North America founded between 1607 (Virginia) and 1732 (Georgia). The Early Navigators practically have been to the entire Caribbean, from The Bahamas to Jamaica. [7], In 1501–1502, an expedition led by Gonçalo Coelho (or André Gonçalves and/or Gaspar de Lemos), sailed south along the coast of South America to the bay of present-day Rio de Janeiro. The pressure for Portugal to let go of its colonies began in the 20th century. After Columbus showed that you could get somewhere by sailing across the Atlantic (1492-1493) and Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope all the way to India (1497-1498), it was clear that European sailing technology was ready to go anywhere in the world. In 1498 Vasco da Gama (ca. While in the Americas, Cabral acquired brazilwood (a red wood that came to be highly sought after as a source of dye and that lent its name to the new colony in South America). Other settlements and forts were established later with their main trade being slaves who were sent to the New World in exchange for products from Europe. The Socialist countries – Yugoslavia, Poland, Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, People’s Republic of China and Cuba – had a prominent role in the work carried out between 1965-­‐1974 by the Decolonization Committee on the intersection between the foreign investments and colonial domination in the Portuguese colonies. In 1807 the French ruler Napoléon Bonaparte (1769–1821) invaded Portugal through Spain. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. Through their efforts, the crown created two classes of Native Americans. Trade and Power: Informal Colonialism in Anglo-Portuguese Relations. The Portuguese were among the first Europeans to establish colonies in the Americas. The Indians taught the Pilgrims how to grow corn and helped them survive in the new land. He and his nephew, Estácio de Sá, then founded the city of Rio de Janeiro in March 1567. The independence of Latin America After three centuries of colonial rule, independence came rather suddenly to most of Spanish and Portuguese America. Portuguese colonialism in the East Indies, Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portuguese_colonization_of_the_Americas&oldid=1000780348, Portuguese exploration in the Age of Discovery, All articles with broken links to citations, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 17:56. He also reformed the economic codes that regulated the sugar and diamond trade and created chartered companies to oversee trade in northern Brazil and Portugal's fishing industry. His greatest impact on the kingdom's American colonies was the expulsion of the Jesuits, whose exile he ordered in the belief that they held too much power and influence, especially in the remote areas of Brazil. In 1549, due to their failure and limited success, the Captaincy Colonies of Brazil were united into the Governorate General of Brazil. ... Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in the Americas. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1973. The gold rush further accelerated the slave trade as new slaves were imported to work in the mines. Portuguese is a Latin-based (or Romance) language that developed in the Iberian Peninsula. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. Many former Portuguese colonies have today, been subsumed into modern day countries, with some areas having had their borders and maps redrawn a number of times throughout the last three or four centuries. At the turn of the 17th century, with the union with Castile, the Spanish kings favored the free movement of the people, and other lands of the New World, such as Peru and the Gulf of Mexico, were open to the Portuguese merchants. The new wealth led Lisbon to concentrate more resources and attention on Brazil as the colony became the greatest source of wealth for the empire. By 1654, the Netherlands had surrendered and returned control of all Brazilian land to the Portuguese. The Portugese Army more likely then not had military attaches in Vietnam among American,South Korean Australian and Thai forces. João III ushered in the era of Portuguese colonization in Brazil in 1533 with the donatory captaincies. Portugal pressed into the hinterland of Angola and Mozambiq… One category classified natives as peaceful and able to be converted (and therefore granted certain protections under the auspices of the Jesuits), while the second category was reserved for Native Americans who resisted conversion and consequently could be enslaved. In 1500 Pedro Álvares Cabral (ca. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. These settlements were more successful in the southern regions. These are the remains of the first European country that explored the world in search of spices and souls. A World on the Move: The Portuguese in Africa, Asia, and America, 1415–1808. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/empire-americas-portuguese, "Empire in the Americas, Portuguese Sacramento also became a hub for smuggling goods into and out of Spanish-controlled territory. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. His tenure was marked by significant increases in revenues and a series of military efforts against the natives and French raiders. Given that all the countries that fall under the ‘umbrella’ of Latin America share some geographical, political … Rotterdam, Netherlands: Rotterdam University Press, 1970. In 1820 a military rebellion in Portugal forced the return of the king and court while republican revolts spread across Brazil. The early explorers had found the coastal areas of Brazil to be sparsely populated and judged that the area's economic value was limited. Known as France Antarctique, the colony was destroyed in 1567 by Mem de Sá (d. 1572), Brazil's third governor-general, who founded Rio de Janeiro on the site of the former French settlement. The Portuguese-speaking African countries (Portuguese: Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa; PALOP), also known as Lusophone Africa, consist of six African countries in which the Portuguese language is an official language: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and, since 2011, Equatorial Guinea. One of the longest-lived empires in world history, it existed for almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to Chinain 1999. In 1621, Philip II of Portugal divided the Governorate General of Brazil into two separate and autonomous colonies, the State of Maranhão and the State of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro became the new capital of the Portuguese Empire, and colonial officials in Brazil gained new power and influence. The Economy Spain controlled trade for New Spain, they forbade that they trade with other European nations and other Spanish colonies. Portugal was also one of the first imperial states to grant independence to its colonies in the Western Hemisphere. The term is also applied to a group of nationals wh…, THE CAUSE OF DECOLONIZATION In 1549, due to their failure and limited success, the Captaincy Colonies of Brazil were united into the Governorate General of Brazil. An early Portuguese presence in Sri Lanka is steadily increased during the century. De Sousa founded two towns, São Vicente and São Paulo. Fragmentary evidence also suggests a previous expedition in 1473 by João Vaz Corte-Real, their father, with other Europeans, to Terra Nova do Bacalhau (Newfoundland of the Codfish) in North America. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Hemming, John. Each grant extended about 241 kilometers (150 miles) in length and reached into the unknown interior. The exact date that the Azores were discovered is hotly contested, some say they were discovered as early as 1147, they were officially discovered in fourteenth century by Goncalo Velho Cabral. These land grants were hereditary, and the monarchy hoped they would lead to a new class of colonial aristocracy. São Vicente, by its democratic municipal prerogatives (in the tradition of Portuguese municipalism since the Middle Ages) and by the general elections to its first Câmara (City Council) on August 22, 1532, is symbolically considered the birthplace of democracy in the Americas. On 21 April 1500, a mountain was seen that was named Monte Pascoal, and on 22 April, Cabral landed on the coast, in Porto Seguro. Growing profits from sugar cultivation led to renewed interest in Brazil from the other colonial powers. Portugal attempted to establish colonies in Africa, but the defeat of a Portuguese army in Tangier, Morocco, in 1436 led the kingdom increasingly to concentrate on sea explorations in search of an alternate route to Asia that would bypass the Venetian-controlled trade routes in the Mediterranean. The British and Portuguese were allies during wars with Holland, and a series of treaties, signed in 1642, 1654, and 1661, granted the British commercial and trade concessions in the Portuguese colonies. In 1815, following the death of Maria I and the installation of João as King João VI, Brazil was elevated to the status of a kingdom with a dual monarchy. His last two voyages to the east and southern east coasts of South America, by Portugal, especially the expedition of 1501–1502 to Brazil and beyond, and its meeting with Cabral's ships and men (who had touched the South American, African and Asian continents) on the African coast, at Bezeguiche (the bay of Dakar, Senegal), listening the accounts of its sailors (then returning to Portugal), were the most decisive for his "New World" hypothesis. [2][3] The possible voyage of 1473 and several other possible pre-Columbian expeditions to North America in the 15th century, mostly from the Azores in the case of the Portuguese (included in donation royal letters), remain matters of great controversy for scholars. Russell-Wood, A. J. Intro to Engineering Design. Between 1630 and 1654, the Netherlands came to control part of Brazil's Northeast region, with their capital in Recife. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. The Portuguese settlers were unable to enslave natives on a scale sufficient to meet their requirements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978. The captaincies were autonomous, and mostly private, colonies of the Portuguese Empire, each owned and run by a Captain-major. A large area of South America remained outside the Spanish empire. Although Great Britain held several…, c. 1875 Pombal: Paradox of the Enlightenment. This formable was suggested by Finglestar. Portuguese territories eventually included the modern nations of Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, and Mozambique. The captaincy colonies were reorganized as provincial districts to the Governorate. During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there. However, the donatory system displaced tribes, and the rise of sugarcane plantations led to efforts to enslave native peoples. Portuguese architecture spread to its colonies from the 15th century until the late 20th century. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . Portugal is a small Western European country at the western tip of the Iberian Peninsula. [2] Subsequently, in 1501 and 1502, the Corte-Real brothers explored and charted Greenland and what is today the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, claiming these lands as part of the Portuguese Empire. EUROPEAN EFFORTS TO REINVENT OVERSEA…, Sources In 1726 Spain struck back by establishing Montevideo on territory that Portugal claimed. This seems controversial, since he changed part of his description in the subsequent letter (stating that around 32° S, they made a shift to open sea, to south-southeast), maintaining, however, that they reached a similar 50° S latitude. Intermittent conflict continued until a lasting peace agreement was signed in 1661. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. Even after Portugal was liberated from French forces, the monarchy remained in Rio. 13 terms. ed., London: Papermac, 1995. Despite their dictator’s hard stance, independence movements arose in Angola, Guinea Bissau, and Mozambique whi… Afonso de Albuquerque’s dream was an infusion of Portuguese blood into each of the colonies. The boundaries of Colonialism, like those of many literary eras, are difficult to draw. Relations between the natives and the Portuguese were initially cooperative. From 1565 through 1567, Mem de Sá, the third Governor General of Brazil, successfully destroyed a ten-year-old French colony called France Antarctique, at Guanabara Bay. With permanent settlement came the establishment of the sugar cane industry and its intensive labor demands which were met with Native and later African slaves. Pombal eliminated certain concessions enjoyed by foreign merchants, especially the British. He also founded the colonial capital, Salvador. Under this unique system, the monarchy divided Brazil into fifteen zones, or captaincies (these were royal gifts, known as donatarios, granted to various courtiers and royal favorites). Anywhere on the coasts of Asia, America and Africa you can find a fort, a church, a geographical name or a family name, reminiscent of Portugal. [4], In April 1500, the second Portuguese India Armada, headed by Pedro Álvares Cabral, with a crew of expert captains, including Bartolomeu Dias and Nicolau Coelho, encountered the Brazilian coast as it swung westward in the Atlantic while performing a large "volta do mar" to avoid becalming in the Gulf of Guinea. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th centu… It was influenced by the languages introduced to the region during the barbaric invasions, particularly German, and much later in history, the Moorish invasions. In 1755 a severe earthquake in Lisbon led to a period of benign neglect of the colonies. 12 Jan. 2021 . 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